Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors, 3rd Edition is the award-winning, essential textbook and guide for understanding and achieving customer-focused, evidence-based health care design excellence. This updated third edition includes new information about how all aspects of health facility design — site planning, architecture, interiors, product design, graphic design, and others - can meet the needs and reflect the preferences of customers: patients, family and visitors, as well as staff.
The book takes readers on a journey through a typical health facility and discusses, in detail, at each stop along the way, how design can demonstrate care both for and about patients and visitors. Design that Cares provides the definitive roadmap to improving customer experience by design. Janet R. Incoming materials materials packaging and quantity must be considered 3. Outgoing material 4.
Operators space and access to equipment 5. Location of waste and rejects 6. Fixture and tools 7. Scale of drawing. Efficiency is using the job right. These principles enable the workstation designer to achieve these goals. Principle 1: Hand Motions 1. Eliminate as many hand motions as possible. Combine motions together to eliminate other motions. Make motions as short as possible, discourage leaning excessive reaching 4.
Reduce the force required as much as possible. Keep both hands equally busy. Use mirror image moves. Do not use the hand as a holding device. Locate frequently used tools and materials closer to the point of use. Principle 2: Basic Motion Types Ballistic motions are fast motions created by putting one set of muscles in motion and not trying to stop those motions by using other muscles. Ballistic motions should be encouraged.
Controlled or restricted motions are the opposite of ballistic motions and require more control especially at the end of the motion. They should be eliminated when possiblethey are costly, fatiguing, and unsafe. Continuous motions are curved motions and are more natural than straight-line motions. Principle 3: Location of Parts and Tools 1. Have a fixed location for everything. Place everything as close to the point of use as possible. Principle 4: Free the Hands from as Much Work as Possible Keep in mind: Operators hands are the most expensive fixture that a designer could use.
Fixtures and jigs are designed to hold parts. Foot-operated control devices can be designed to activate equipment. Conveyors or powered round tables can move parts. Fixtures can be electric, air, hydraulic, and manually activated. Principle 5: Use Gravity Gravity is free power. Use it! Gravity can move parts closer to the operator by putting an incline in the bottom of parts hoppers. Gravity can also be used to remove finished parts from the workstation by using chutes or slides. Principle 6: Operator Safety and Health Considerations Keep safety hazards in mind and anticipate emergency action requirements while designing the workstation.
Design the workstation to eliminate straining the neck to look at things, to eliminate stooping or bending, to eliminate turning sideways or turning around, and to eliminate excessive reaches and moves. Adequate lighting may not be available in the normal lighting of a manufacturing department, so additional lighting should be addedmuch like a desk lamp. Operator space should be 3 3 3 feet, which is normal unless the workstation is wider. Xstations Square Feet Strip shear 12 X 8. Chapter 8 Auxiliary Services Requirement Space Objectives In this chapter the need for the auxiliary or support services in a manufacturing facility is introduced and space determinations for these departments are discussed.
Manufacturing departments need support services, and these services need space. Receiving and shipping 2. Storage 3. Warehousing 4. Maintenance and tool room 5. The receiving department is the start of the material flow, whereas the shipping department is the end of the material flow. Common equipment 2.
Common personnel 3. Improved space utilization 4. Reduced facility cost. The disadvantages of centralized shipping and receiving are space congestion and material flow. It would be a costly mistake to ship out some of the newly received parts. Multiple receiving locations is also a possibility. The Trucking Industrys Effect on Shipping and Receiving The trucking industry is organized nationally to deliver raw materials and parts to industry in the morning and pick up shipments in the afternoon.
This is known as less than truck load quantities LTL. The Functions of a Receiving Department The functions of a receiving department are: 1. To assist in locating a trailer at the receiving dock door 2. To assist in the unloading of the material 3. To record the receipt of the number of containers 4. To open, separate, inspect, and count the material being received 5. To develop an overage, shortage, or damage reports as needed 6. To develop a receiving report 7. To send material to raw material stores or straight to production if needed.
Record receipt. When material is unloaded, it is checked in on a log. This log is often called a Bates log. Damage suffered in shipment and quality problems are also reported on this form. Receiving reports. The receiving report is the notice to the rest of our company that a product has been received and contains the following information: 1 the P. Send to stores or production. A significant portion of the problems associated with these manual operations of identification, counting, sorting, routing, and inventory management, and the resulting human errors can be alleviated through the use of automatic identification and data capture AIDC technologies.
Facilities Required for Receiving Departments Dock doors. The number of dock doors needed is dependent on the arrival rate at peak time, and the service rate.
Dock plates, dock levelers, and dock boards. These tools are used to bridge the gap between the floors of buildings and the floors of trailers so that material can be moved on and off the trailer easily. Aisles leading from the trailers into the plant must be sized for the material handling equipment, the material being moved, and the frequency of trips. Outside areas.
Space considerations should be given to the following: 1. Trailer parking alone can take up 65 feet out from the plant wall. Maneuvering space is the space between the road and parking area and is usually about 45 feet. Roadways are 11 feet one way or 22 feet for two-way traffic. Space for a desk, files for purchase orders, Bates logs, receiving reports, and over shortage and damage reports are needed.
Usually square feet per clerk are necessary. Space Requirements for the Receiving Department 1 Visualization of the receiving job based on the number of finished products produced per day and the weight of those units. It is based on the following data: 1 2 3 4 5 6 dock doors; aisles; unloading hold area; working area to open, separate, count, and check quality; office area; and holding area for stores.
The Functions of a Shipping Department 1. Packaging finished goods for shipping 2. Addressing cartons or containers 3. Weighing each container 4. Collecting orders for shipping stage 5. Spotting trailers 6. Loading trailers 7. Creating bills of lading. Packaging finished goods for shipping. This process varies with the product and the kind of company. Keep in mind that the weight of the container must be compatible with our customers ability to unload the shipment. Packaging workstation design must also consider the principles of motion economy.
Proper work height, good lighting, and all tools and materials located conveniently are only a few of the principles of motion economy that must be considered. Bills of lading. The bill of lading lists every order and the weight of that product. Space for shipping must include areas for packaging, staging, aisles, trailer parking, roadways, and offices. Sometimes, lounges for truckers and restrooms are included. Example: Two thousand toolboxes per day times 5 pounds per toolbox equals 10, pounds per day.
Facilities Design, Third Edition : Sunderesh S. Heragu :
How many cubic feet do 2, toolboxes take up? Space to store stage a days supply of shipments 1, cubic feet is required. A space of 8 feet times 40 feet times 60 percent equals square feet for staging. Only 60 percent. There are many different types: Raw material stores Finished parts stores Office supplies stores Maintenance supplies stores Janitorial supply stores The space requirements is dependent on the stated inventory policy. For example: Provide space to store a one-month supply of raw material, or Provide an area to store a one-week supply of A items, 2 weeks of B items, and a one-month supply of C items.
Just-in-Time Inventories This is a very special inventory subject that takes total corporate commitment and very special relationships with vendors. JIT will affect the plant layout in many ways: 1.
Facilities Design, Third Edition
Adjust or eliminate receiving, receiving reports, and so on. Eliminate incoming quality control checks. Eliminate or greatly reduce stores area requirements. The goals of any stores department should be: 1. To maximize the use of the cubic space 2. To provide immediate access to everything selectivity 3. To provide for the safekeeping of the inventory including, a damage and b count control. Storage facilities requirement spreadsheet. Every part must be measured for cubic size, multiplied by the number of parts to be stored, and converted to cubic feet.
List all the raw materials and buyout parts. For each part, list the length, width, height, and cubic inches. State required quantity divided by 2 allow room for average inventory. Calculate cubic feet required. Determine the number of storage units required for each part. For example: Shelves are 3 cubic feet each 1 X 1 X 3 feet. A pallet is 4 X 4 X 4 feet high or 64 cubic feet per unit load. Determine number of shelves or racks needed Example: 1, shelves divided by 6 shelves per unit equals shelving units.
To store 1, pallets, pallet racks are required 10 pallets per rack Aisle feet. The concept of aisle feet is very useful. Aisle feet will help to determine the space needed. Determine the linear feet of space needed to store the racks, shelving units, etc. Example: How many aisle feet of pallet racks do we need? In our example: aisle feet of shelving, aisle feet of racking, 80 aisle feet of floor storage, and 4 and 8-foot aisles. Laying out the storage area Step 1.
Start with a wall, placing the floor storage against the wall Step 2. Place aisle feet of pallet rack with 8-foot service aisles. Place aisle feet of shelving serviced by 4-foot aisles. As in the storeroom, the area requirement will depend on management policy. Seasonality could require us to stockpile our finished product for months in order to meet market demands.
Warehouse Design Criteria Two requirements may affect the layout of a warehouse: 1. Fixed locations 2. Small amount of everything. A items: 20 percent of the inventory items account for 80 percent of the sales B items: 40 percent of the inventory items account for 15 percent of the sales C items account for only 5 percent of the sales dollars but 40 percent of the part number.
To safekeep the finished product 2. To maintain some stock of every product sold by our company 3.
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To prepare customer orders for shipment. Example: Provide a warehouse to store a day supply of toolboxes at the rate of 2, units per day. Chapter 9 Employee ServicesSpace Requirements Objectives In this chapter the students are sensitized to the needs of the employees as relate to facilities planning. Employees space requirements for doing work and personal needs are discussed. Employee services include, but are not limited to: 1. Parking lots 2. Employee entrance 3. Locker room 4. Toilets 5. Cafeteria 6. Recreation areas 7.
Drinking fountains 8. Aisles 9. Medical services Break areas and lounges The location and quality of these services affect the efficiency and productivity of our employees, the quality of work life, and employees relationship with the companys management. Manufacturing employee parking 2. Office employee parking 3. Visitor parking Convenience and the efficient use of space are very important considerations when determining the parking lot design. The entrances to the plant will determine where the parking lots are located. The size of the parking lot is directly proportional to the number of employees, location of the company, and availability of public transportation.
Office parking may be incorporated with the visitor parking spaces and a ratio of 1 to 1 may be appropriate. The facilities planner must comply with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act ADA of in all aspects of planning and design. Providing special and properly designed parking spaces and creating a barrier-free environment in all aspects of the facility in a matter of law. As the angle, A, of the parking spots increases, the required width of the aisle increases 2.
As the width of the parking spots increases, the required width of the aisle decreases. The wider the parking spots to 10 feet are, the less door damage there is in your parking lot. Local building codes often dictate parking spot size. Local building codes often dictate the number and location of handicapped spots. As a general rule of thumb, a parking lot will be square feet per number of parking spots needed.
The size depends on the number of persons using the door at any given time. The door could measure from 3 feet to 6 feet with an aisle leading into the plant. Personnel and security offices will be sized at square feet per office person. About one personnel person per employees and one security person per employees are normal. For example: Lunch Lunch Lunch Lunch Lunch Lunch The local codes may dictate the number. The number of washbasins is usually equal to the number of toilets.
Also ADA. The size of a restroom is 15 square feet per toilet, washbasin, and entry way, and 9 square feet for urinals. Cafeterias with serving lines 2. Vending machines 3. Mobile vendors 4. Dining rooms executive 5. Off-site diners lunch counters A cafeteria feeds a lot of people in a short time.
One serving line can service 9 employees per minute. One line is 30 feet long and 10 feet wide. If lunch periods were staggered, people per hour could be served. Cafeterias are generally used in big plants. Vending machines can serve very complete meals. A vending machine with a microwave oven for special foods can provide employees with many meal choices.
Mobile vendors are outside vendors who drive their wares to the plant. Executive dining rooms are very special and are used to entertain special customers, vendors, and stockholders. They usually provide a limited selection from a menu with the meal being cooked on site. Off-site dining at local diners is attractive to many employees. It allows them to get away from the job. Most factory people are not given enough time to leave the plant for lunch. Companies also discourage people from leaving the plant at lunch time because the companies lose control.
The size of the lunch room depends on 1 the number of employees, 2 the type of service provided, and 3 the facilities included. Health clubs, tracks, locker rooms, as well as Ping-Pong tables, card games, and social clubs are becoming a part of our plants. Aisles are for movement of people, equipment, and material. The aisles must be sized for that use. Aisles should be long and straight. Side aisles may be smaller but perpendicular to the main aisle. A couple of ideas used to reduce aisles are: 1. Use stand-up reach trucks instead of fork trucks.
Use double deep pallet racks or drive-in pallet racks. When a plant approaches people, a registered nurse is usually justified. Nurses require facilities such as waiting rooms, examining room, medical supplies, and record and reclining areas. One nurse would require a squarefoot area.
Too far is defined as over feet. Lounges are usually found in shipping and receiving areas for visiting truck drivers to wait for their loads. Chapter 10 Material Handling Objectives In this chapter material handling is defined. The goals and the 20 principles of material handling are discussed.
Material handling problem-solving procedures are presentede. Material handling is the function of moving the right material to the right place, at the right time, in the right amount, in sequence, and in the right position or condition to minimize production costs. Material control systems such as part numbering, location, inventory control, standardization, lot size, order quantities, safety stocks, labeling, automatic identification techniques are an integral part of modern material handling systems.
Definition: Material handling can be broadly defined as all movement of materials in a manufacturing environment. Material handling has five distinct dimensions: movement, quantity, time, space, and control. Movement involves the actual transportation or transfer of material. Efficiency and safety are of prime concerns. Quantity dictates the type and nature of the material handling equipment.
Cost per unit must be considered. Time determines how quickly the material can move through the facility. It affects work in process, excessive inventories, repeated handling of the material, and order delivery lead times. Space is concerned with the required space for the storage of the material handling equipment and their movement, as well as the queuing or staging space for the material itself. Control deals with tracking of the material, identification, and inventory management. Material handling equipment has reduced the drudgery of work and production cost.
The handling of material is attributed to more than one-half of all industrial accidents. Material handling equipment can eliminate manual lifting. Material handling equipment like all equipment can cause injury, so safety is an important factor when selecting material handling equipment. Material handling also accounts for, on the average, 50 percent of the total operation cost.
Nonpowered equipment can be very cost efficient. Gravity chute, rollers, hand carts, and hand jacks are examples. Safety, quality, labor, power, and equipment costs must all be included in the unit costs. From the boxcar to the storeroom, feet. Two temporary workers. One week, twice a year. Present method. Manually unload the pallets, move pallets into the storeroom with the fork truck.
How much could you spend to this job? Should the current method stay the same or are there other alternatives that can be employed? But consider the following: Cumulative trauma disorders and work-related injuries are costing business real dollars and productivity. According to BLS the rate of incidents has increased steadily since In , 25 million workers reported lower back pain and 25 percent of all workers missed an average of one day of work per year due to the same problem.
The compensations cost the U. Indirect costs may raise the total U. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the following tabulation on incident rates for injuries shows the rates per full-time workers since Promote safety and improve working conditions. Promote productivity: a. Material should flow in a straight line. Material should move as short a distance as possible.
Use gravity! It is free power. Move more material at one time. Mechanize material handling. Automate material handling. Increase throughput by using automatic material handling equipment. Promote increased use of facilities: a. Promote the use of the building cube. Purchase versatile equipment. Standardize material handling equipment.
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Maximize production equipment utilization using material handling feeders. Maintain, and replace as needed, develop a preventive maintenance program. Integrate all material handling equipment into a system. Reduce tare weight dead weight. Control inventory. The Unit Load Concept A unit load is a load of many parts that move as one. Advantages of a unit load: 1 faster 2 cheaper Disadvantages: 1. Cost of making the unit loads and deunitizing 2. Tare weight the weight of boxes, pallets, and the like 3. What to do with the empties 4.
The need for heavy equipment and its space requirements. Matewrial Handling Equation The material handling equation is a plan for a systematic approach to equipment solution. Why are we making this move? Can we eliminate this move? What are we moving? Understand the size, shape, weight, and the number being moved and the kind of material. Where are we moving the material from and to? If the same every time, a fixed path technique is warranted conveyor. If it changes, a variable path technique is used industrial truck.
When is the move needed? Ihow often? If several times a minute, a conveyor is used. How will the move be made? By hand, by conveyor, by fork truck? Analyze the requirements to define the problem. Be sure the move is required. Determine the magnitude of the problem. Cost analysis is best. Collect as much information as possiblewhy, who, what, where, when, and how. Search for vendors. Suppliers often provide outstanding assistance. Develop viable alternatives. Collect costs and savings data on all alternatives.
Select the best method. Select a supplier. Prepare the cost justification. Prepare a formal report. Make a presentation to management. Obtain approvals adjust as needed. Place an order. Receive and install equipment. Train employees. Debug make it work and revise as necessary. Place into production.
Follow up to see that it is working as planned. Audit performance to see that payback was realized. Chapter 11 Material Handling Equipment Objectives In this chapter various types of material handling equipment are presented. Material handling equipment may be grouped into four general categories. Fixed-path or point-to-point equipment. This class of equipment serves the material handling need along a predetermined, or a fixed path such as the train and the railroad track, conveyor systems.
Fixed-area material handling system serve any point within a three-dimensional area or cube such as a jib crane or a bridge crane or an ASRS system. The material handling equipment that can move to any area of the facility is referred to as variable-path variable-area equipment. All manual carts, motorized vehicles, and fork trucks can be pushed, dragged, or driven throughout the plant. The forth category consists of all auxiliary tools and equipment such as pallets, skids, automatic data collection systems, and containers.
In this text, the organization follows the flow of material from the receipt of material to the warehousing of that material as follows: 1. Receiving and shipping because they are similar 2. Stores 3. Fabrication 4. Assembly 5. Packaging 6. Warehousing Two additional areas of material handling are: 7. Bulk material handling 8. Automatic storage and retrieval systems.
Receiving and Shipping Docks The most common type of dock is known as a flush dock. Drive-in docks are similar to flush docks except that when the door opens, the truck and trailer can back into the plant and the door can be closed. This type of dock is very expensive and quite desirable in bad weather. Drive-through docks are a pair of doors across the plant from each other. New Condition: New Hardcover. Save for Later. Shipping: Free Within U.
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