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Are not red and yellow more unitary than purple or orange? The average person, asked to state which colors are unitary, names red, yellow, and blue, these three, and some observers add a fourth, green. Psychologists are accustomed to accept the four as salient hues. That shows the difficulty with psychological researches. It is clear that we have such feelings, but it is very difficult to obtain much information about them. So the other direction to go is the physiological direction, to find out experimentally what actually happens in the brain, the eye, the retina, or wherever, and perhaps to discover that some combinations of impulses from various cells move along certain nerve fibers.

Incidentally, primary pigments do not have to be in separate cells; one could have cells in which are mixtures of the various pigments, cells with the red and the green pigments, cells with all three the information of all three is then white information , and so on. There are many ways of hooking the system up, and we have to find out which way nature has used. It would be hoped, ultimately, that when we understand the physiological connections we will have a little bit of understanding of some of those aspects of the psychology, so we look in that direction. We begin by talking not only about color vision, but about vision in general, just to remind ourselves about the interconnections in the retina, shown in Fig.

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The retina is really like the surface of the brain. Although the actual picture through a microscope is a little more complicated looking than this somewhat schematized drawing, by careful analysis one can see all these interconnections. There is no question that one part of the surface of the retina is connected to other parts, and that the information that comes out on the long axons, which produce the optic nerve, are combinations of information from many cells.

There are three layers of cells in the succession of function: there are retinal cells, which are the ones that the light affects, an intermediate cell which takes information from a single or a few retinal cells and gives it out again to several cells in a third layer of cells and carries it to the brain.

There are all kinds of cross connections between cells in the layers. We now turn to some aspects of the structure and performance of the eye see Fig. It would be nice if we could make optical glass in which we could adjust the index throughout, for then we would not have to curve it as much as we do when we have a uniform index. Furthermore, the shape of the cornea is not that of a sphere.

A spherical lens has a certain amount of spherical aberration. The light is focused by the cornea-lens system onto the retina. As we look at things that are closer and farther away, the lens tightens and loosens and changes the focus to adjust for the different distances. To adjust for the total amount of light there is the iris, which is what we call the color of the eye, brown or blue, depending on who it is; as the amount of light increases and decreases, the iris moves in and out. Let us now look at the neural machinery for controlling the accommodation of the lens, the motion of the eye, the muscles which turn the eye in the socket, and the iris, shown schematically in Fig.

These are the fibers which measure the average light and make adjustment for the iris; or, if the image looks foggy, they try to correct the lens; or, if there is a double image, they try to adjust the eye for binocular vision.

At any rate, they go through the mid-brain and feed back into the eye. The iris has two muscle systems. The opposite muscles are radial muscles, so that, when the things get dark and the circular muscle relaxes, these radial muscles pull out. Here we have, as in many places in the body, a pair of muscles which work in opposite directions, and in almost every such case the nerve systems which control the two are very delicately adjusted, so that when signals are sent in to tighten one, signals are automatically sent in to loosen the other.

The iris is a peculiar exception: the nerves which make the iris contract are the ones we have already described, but the nerves which make the iris expand come out from no one knows exactly where, go down into the spinal cord back of the chest, into the thoracic sections, out of the spinal cord, up through the neck ganglia, and all the way around and back up into the head in order to run the other end of the iris.

In fact, the signal goes through a completely different nervous system, not the central nervous system at all, but the sympathetic nervous system, so it is a very strange way of making things go. We have already emphasized another strange thing about the eye, that the light-sensitive cells are on the wrong side, so that the light has to go through several layers of other cells before it gets to the receptors—it is built inside out! So some of the features are wonderful and some are apparently stupid.

Notice that some of the fibers from each eye are sent over to the other side of the brain, so the picture formed is incomplete. So the left side of the brain receives all the information which comes from the left side of the eyeball of each eye, i. This is the manner in which the information from each of the two eyes is put together in order to tell how far away things are.

This is the system of binocular vision.

The connections between the retina and the visual cortex are interesting. If a spot in the retina is excised or destroyed in any way, then the whole fiber will die, and we can thereby find out where it is connected. It turns out that, essentially, the connections are one to one—for each spot in the retina there is one spot in the visual cortex—and spots that are very close together in the retina are very close together in the visual cortex. So the visual cortex still represents the spatial arrangement of the rods and cones, but of course much distorted.

Things which are in the center of the field, which occupy a very small part of the retina, are expanded over many, many cells in the visual cortex. It is clear that it is useful to have things which are originally close together, still close together. The most remarkable aspect of the matter, however, is the following.

Temporal acuity of honeybee vision: behavioural studies using moving stimuli

The place where one would think it would be most important to have things close together would be right in the middle of the visual field. Believe it or not, the up-and-down line in our visual field as we look at something is of such a nature that the information from all the points on the right side of that line is going into the left side of the brain, and information from the points on the left side is going into the right side of the brain, and the way this area is made, there is a cut right down through the middle, so that the things that are very close together right in the middle are very far apart in the brain!

Somehow, the information has to go from one side of the brain to the other through some other channels, which is quite surprising. The problem of how much is already wired and how much is learned is an old one. That approach probably is not correct, because we already see that in many cases there are these special detailed interconnections.

More illuminating are some most remarkable experiments done with a salamander. Incidentally, with the salamander there is a direct crossover connection, without the optic chiasma, because the eyes are on each side of the head and have no common area. Salamanders do not have binocular vision. The experiment is this. We can cut the optic nerve in a salamander and the nerve will grow out from the eyes again.

Thousands and thousands of cell fibers will thus re-establish themselves. Now, in the optic nerve the fibers do not stay adjacent to each other—it is like a great, sloppily made telephone cable, all the fibers twisting and turning, but when it gets to the brain they are all sorted out again. When we cut the optic nerve of the salamander, the interesting question is, will it ever get straightened out? The answer is remarkable: yes. If we cut the optic nerve of the salamander and it grows back, the salamander has good visual acuity again.

Therefore there is some mysterious way by which the thousands and thousands of fibers find their right places in the brain. This problem of how much is wired in, and how much is not, is an important problem in the theory of the development of creatures. The answer is not known, but is being studied intensively. The same experiment in the case of a goldfish shows that there is a terrible knot, like a great scar or complication, in the optic nerve where we cut it, but in spite of all this the fibers grow back to their right places in the brain.

In order to do this, as they grow into the old channels of the optic nerve they must make several decisions about the direction in which they should grow. How do they do this? There seem to be chemical clues that different fibers respond to differently. Think of the enormous number of growing fibers, each of which is an individual differing in some way from its neighbors; in responding to whatever the chemical clues are, it responds in a unique enough way to find its proper place for ultimate connection in the brain!

This is an interesting—a fantastic—thing. It is one of the great recently discovered phenomena of biology and is undoubtedly connected to many older unsolved problems of growth, organization, and development of organisms, and particularly of embryos. One other interesting phenomenon has to do with the motion of the eye. The eyes must be moved in order to make the two images coincide in different circumstances. These motions are of different kinds: one is to follow something, which requires that both eyes must go in the same direction, right or left, and the other is to point them toward the same place at various distances away, which requires that they must move oppositely.

The nerves going into the muscles of the eye are already wired up for just such purposes. There is one set of nerves which will pull the muscles on the inside of one eye and the outside of the other, and relax the opposite muscles, so that the two eyes move together.

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There is another center where an excitation will cause the eyes to move in toward each other from parallel. Either eye can be turned out to the corner if the other eye moves toward the nose, but it is impossible consciously or unconsciously to turn both eyes out at the same time, not because there are no muscles , but because there is no way to send a signal to turn both eyes out, unless we have had an accident or there is something the matter, for instance if a nerve has been cut.

Although the muscles of one eye can certainly steer that eye about, not even a Yogi is able to move both eyes out freely under voluntary control, because there does not seem to be any way to do it. We are already wired to a certain extent. This is an important point, because most of the earlier books on anatomy and psychology, and so on, do not appreciate or do not emphasize the fact that we are so completely wired already—they say that everything is just learned.

Let us now examine in more detail what happens in the rod cells. There are layer after layer of plane structures, shown magnified at the right, which contain the substance rhodopsin visual purple , the dye, or pigment, which produces the effects of vision in the rods. The rhodopsin, which is the pigment, is a big protein which contains a special group called retinene, which can be taken off the protein, and which is, undoubtedly, the main cause of the absorption of light.

We do not understand the reason for the planes, but it is very likely that there is some reason for holding all the rhodopsin molecules parallel. The chemistry of the thing has been worked out to a large extent, but there might be some physics to it. It may be that all of the molecules are arranged in some kind of a row so that when one is excited an electron which is generated, say, may run all the way down to some place at the end to get the signal out, or something.

This subject is very important, and has not been worked out. It is a field in which both biochemistry and solid state physics, or something like it, will ultimately be used. This kind of a structure, with layers, appears in other circumstances where light is important, for example in the chloroplast in plants, where the light causes photosynthesis.

If we magnify those, we find the same thing with almost the same kind of layers, but there we have chlorophyll, of course, instead of retinene. The chemical form of retinene is shown in Fig. It has a series of alternate double bonds along the side chain, which is characteristic of nearly all strongly absorbing organic substances, like chlorophyll, blood, and so on. This substance is impossible for human beings to manufacture in their own cells—we have to eat it.

The reason why such a series of double bonds absorbs light very strongly is also known. We may just give a hint: The alternating series of double bonds is called a conjugated double bond; a double bond means that there is an extra electron there, and this extra electron is easily shifted to the right or left.

When light strikes this molecule, the electron of each double bond is shifted over by one step. All the electrons in the whole chain shift, like a string of dominoes falling over, and though each one moves only a little distance we would expect that, in a single atom, we could move the electron only a little distance , the net effect is the same as though the one at the end was moved over to the other end!

It is the same as though one electron went the whole distance back and forth, and so, in this manner, we get a much stronger absorption under the influence of the electric field, than if we could only move the electron a distance which is associated with one atom. So, since it is easy to move the electrons back and forth, retinene absorbs light very strongly; that is the machinery of the physical-chemical end of it. Let us now return to biology. The human eye is not the only kind of eye. In the vertebrates, almost all eyes are essentially like the human eye.

However, in the lower animals there are many other kinds of eyes: eye spots, various eye cups, and other less sensitive things, which we have no time to discuss. But there is one other highly developed eye among the invertebrates, the compound eye of the insect. Most insects having large compound eyes also have various additional simpler eyes as well. A bee is an insect whose vision has been studied very carefully.

It is easy to study the properties of the vision of bees because they are attracted to honey, and we can make experiments in which we identify the honey by putting it on blue paper or red paper, and see which one they come to. By this method some very interesting things have been discovered about the vision of the bee.

Even if the two pieces of white paper were almost exactly the same, the bees could still tell the difference. The experimenters used zinc white for one piece of paper and lead white for the other, and although these look exactly the same to us, the bee could easily distinguish them, because they reflect a different amount in the ultraviolet.

This makes for a number of different interesting effects. In the first place, bees can distinguish between many flowers which to us look alike. Of course, we must realize that the colors of flowers are not designed for our eyes, but for the bee; they are signals to attract the bees to a specific flower. Apparently white is not very interesting to the bees, because it turns out that all of the white flowers have different proportions of reflection in the ultraviolet ; they do not reflect one hundred percent of the ultraviolet as would a true white.

All the light is not coming back, the ultraviolet is missing, and that is a color, just as, for us, if the blue is missing, it comes out yellow. So, all the flowers are colored for the bees. However, we also know that red cannot be seen by bees. Thus we might expect that all red flowers should look black to the bee. Not so! A careful study of red flowers shows, first, that even with our own eye we can see that a great majority of red flowers have a bluish tinge because they are mainly reflecting an additional amount in the blue, which is the part that the bee sees.

Furthermore, experiments also show that flowers vary in their reflection of the ultraviolet over different parts of the petals, and so on. So if we could see the flowers as bees see them they would be even more beautiful and varied! It has been shown, however, that there are a few red flowers which do not reflect in the blue or in the ultraviolet, and would , therefore, appear black to the bee! This was of quite some concern to the people who worry about this matter, because black does not seem like an interesting color, since it is hard to tell from a dirty old shadow.

It actually turned out that these flowers were not visited by bees, these are the flowers that are visited by hummingbirds , and hummingbirds can see the red! Another interesting aspect of the vision of the bee is that bees can apparently tell the direction of the sun by looking at a patch of blue sky, without seeing the sun itself. We cannot easily do this.

pt.odigyjydec.ga If we look out the window at the sky and see that it is blue, in which direction is the sun? The bee can tell, because the bee is quite sensitive to the polarization of light, and the scattered light of the sky is polarized. The motions of bees in the hives are very quick; the feet move and the wings vibrate, but it is very hard for us to see these motions with our eye. However, if we could see more rapidly we would be able to see the motion. It is probably very important to the bee that its eye has such a rapid response. Now let us discuss the visual acuity we could expect from the bee.

Out of the other end of it comes the nerve fiber. The central fiber is surrounded on its sides by six cells which, in fact, have secreted the fiber. That is enough description for our purposes; the point is that it is a conical thing and many can fit next to each other all over the surface of the eye of the bee. Now let us discuss the resolution of the eye of the bee. If we draw lines Fig. If we have a very large ommatidium we do not have much resolution. That is, one cell gets a piece of information from one direction, and the adjacent cell gets a piece of information from another direction, and so on, and the bee cannot see things in between very well.

So the uncertainty of visual acuity in the eye will surely correspond to an angle, the angle of the end of the ommatidium relative to the center of curvature of the eye. The eye cells, of course, exist only at the surface of the sphere; inside that is the head of the bee.

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If we make them too big, each one sees in a definite direction, but there are not enough of them to get a good view of the scene. If we add the two together, and find the place where the sum has a minimum Fig. We can see things that are thirty times smaller in apparent size than the bee; the bee has a rather fuzzy out-of-focus image relative to what we can see.

Nevertheless it is all right, and it is the best they can do. We might ask why the bees do not develop a good eye like our own, with a lens and so on. There are several interesting reasons. The eye is not good if it is too small. The beauty of the compound eye is that it takes up no space, it is just a very thin layer on the surface of the bee. So when we argue that they should have done it our way, we must remember that they had their own problems! If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username.

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